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Pathology is the study of the essential nature of diseases, especially of the structural and functional changes in body tissues and organs that cause or are caused by disease due to deviation from propriety. Pathology precisely refers to the study of the origin, nature, and course of diseases. Pathology deals with the laboratory examination of samples of body tissue for diagnostic or forensic purposes.

Surgical pathology is the investigation of tissues expelled from living patients amid surgery to analyze an illness and decide a treatment arrangement. It is responsible for the histological diagnosis of biopsies and surgical resections of major organ systems Regularly, the surgical pathologist gives discussion administrations in a wide assortment of organ indications and subspecialties. The act of surgical pathology takes into consideration authoritative analysis of illness (or deficiency in that department) regardless where tissue is surgically expelled from a patient. This Pathology is generally performed in combination of gross (i.e., plainly visible) and histologic (i.e., infinitesimal) examination of the tissue, and may include assessments of sub-atomic properties of the tissue by immunohistochemistry.This division includes sections of breast pathology, cardiopulmonary pathology, Dermatopathology, gastrointestinal pathology, genitourinary pathology, head and neck pathology, hematopathology, hepatobiliary pathology, renal pathology, skeletal and soft tissue pathology.

Tumor is a gathering of infections including unusual cell development with the possibility to spread to different parts of the body .It can be either benign or malignant cancer that possesses no physiological function and arises from uncontrolled usually rapid cellular proliferation. Not all tumors are harmful; kindhearted tumors don't spread to different parts of the body. Conceivable signs and indications incorporate a protuberance, strange dying, delayed hack, unexplained weight reduction and an adjustment in defecations. While these side effects may demonstrate tumor and it may have different causes, there are more than 100 cancers that affect humans. The pathology related to tumors is known as cancer pathology. It is the task of the surgical pathologist to provide an accurate, specific, and sufficiently comprehensive diagnosis to enable the clinician to develop an optimal plan of treatment and, to the extent possible, estimate prognosis of cancer through pathological report. 
Cytopathology is the examination of cells extracted from tissues of the body under the microscope to determine the signs and characteristics of disease. Cytopathology is often called "cytology," a branch of pathology that deals with manifestations of disease at the cellular level.A cytopathology report tells us whether the cells studied contain signs of a disease. Cells examined for cytopathology can come from fluids extracted from body cavities - e.g. urine, sputum or fluids accumulating inside the chest or abdomen. Cells can also be extracted by inserting needles into lumps or diseased areas or tissues which is called fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
Neuromuscular pathology is the study of muscle and neurologic disease associated with muscle dysfunction. It is a part of neuropathology Muscle pathology is dealt together with neurologic disease. Neuromuscular pathology disorders commonly have impaired motor activity, i.e. slowed or obstructed transit with radiological evidence of transient or persistent visceral dilatation. Neuromuscular diseases include a wide-ranging variety of pathologies that can produce significant disability for the patient.  It differs from neuropathology because it is highly integrated with the clinical management of neuromuscular disease.

Ophthalmic pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology and also a subspecialty of ophthalmology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eyes. Ophthalmic pathology focuses on diseases of the eye and its neighboring tissues. Ophthalmic pathology gives  a significant diagnosis of malignancy, epithelial down growth or sympathetic endophthalmitis. Eye cancers can be differentiated into primary (starts within the eye) and metastatic cancer (spread to the eye from another organ) basing on pathological reports.

Dermatopathology is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser degree of surgical pathology that spotlights on the investigation of cutaneous illnesses at a minuscule and atomic level. It likewise envelops investigations of the potential reasons for skin infections at an essential level. Dermatopathologists work in close relationship with clinical dermatologists. Truth be told, the vast majority of them are prepared basically in dermatology themselves.

 

Hematopathology or hemopathology is the branch of pathology which studies diseases of hematopoietic cells. Blood malignancies are forms of cancer that begins in the cells of blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, or in the cells of the immune system. Examples of hematologic cancer are acute and chronic leukaemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndromes. Hematopathology deals in differentiation and diagnosing Myeloproliferative neoplasms, or MPNs, are hematologic cancers that arise from malignant hematopoietic myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, such as the precursor cells of red cells, platelets and granulocytes.

Histologic Pathology alludes to the minute examination of tissue keeping in mind the end goal to concentrate on the signs of sickness. In particular, in clinical solution, histopathology alludes to the examination of a biopsy or surgical example by a pathologist, after the example has been handled and histological segments have been set onto glass slides. Conversely, cytopathology looks at free cells or tissue sections.

The branch of Dentistry and Pathology  concerned with the etiology,pathogenesis, and clinical, gross, and microscopic aspects of oral and paraoral disease, including oralsoft tissues, the teeth, jaws, and salivary glands.The Pathology that deals with the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs of the oral cavity that cause or are caused by disease. Dental Pathology is any condition of the teeth that can be congenital or acquired. Oral and maxillofacial pathology (also termed oral pathology, stomatognathic disease, dental disease, or mouth disease) refers to the diseases of the mouth ("oral cavity" or "stoma"), jaws ("maxillae" or "gnath") and related structures such as salivary glands, temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and perioral skin (the skin around the mouth). Dental Pathology which deals with diseases and abnion (history and physical examination), will often enable the surgeon to narrow the diagnosis to two or three of the most likely possibilities.

 

Soft tissue pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the soft tissues, such as muscle, adipose tisssue, tendons, fascia, and connective tissues.  Soft Tissue Pathology is broadly defined to include metastatic melanomas, carcinomas, and lymphoid proliferations—in addition to all the tumors that “the flesh is heir to.” Soft tissue and bone tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors most often classified according to the type of tissue they most closely histologically resemble. Soft tissue lesions strike fear in many pathologists as they are uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose. Malignant soft tissue lesions, i.e. cancerous soft tissue lesions, are usually sarcomas. Sarcomas are malignancies derived from mesenchymal tissue.

Bone Pathology is one of the sub specialties of surgical pathology which manages the portrayal and conclusion of diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic ailments of the bone, for example, ligaments, belt, and connective tissues. Skeletal pathology is the study of bone and skeletal muscle disorders including inflammatory, degenerative, neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. Innumerable malignancies of the bone are being analyzed through microscopy and gross examination alone, and extra instruments, like immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and sub-atomic pathology strategies are utilized only once in a while to get an authoritative determination. Bone Tumors including sarcomas, are relatively rare and complete evaluation requires both accurate expertise and use of modern techniques. 
The Thoracic Pathology specializes in evaluation of tissue obtained from the thorax for evaluation of neoplastic (e.g. cancer and other tumors) conditions as well as specific non-neoplastic conditions (infections, inflammatory disease and fibroid (scarring) diseases of the Thorax). Thoracic Pathology includes analysis of prognostic features relative to tumor immunotherapy (PD-L1 expression levels). Tumors in Thorax are reviewed by expert pulmonary pathologists and the results are presented with attendance by oncology, radiation oncology, radiology and thoracic surgery. This Pathology report assures that specific aspects of the patient’s condition are appreciated by the different sectors for optimizing care.

Endocrine pathology is a branch that is concerned with endocrinology and surgical pathology which manages the characterization of dysfunction and diagnosis of  non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases of endocrinal organs that includes the exocrine pancreas, thyroid, and parathyroid glands. Endocrine pathology diagnosis of a dysfunctional thyroid rests largely on the observation and inspection of the patient. Endocrine pathology is complicated as many of these diseases affect several organs. Some have connotations which are familial; a few are diagnosed biochemical where others are identified only through biopsy.

 

Cardiovascular malady (CVD) is group of illnesses that include the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular infection incorporates coronary corridor ailments ( for example, angina and myocardial localized necrosis (known as a heart attack). Other Cardio Vascular Diseases are stroke, hypertensive coronary illness, cardiomyopathy, , rheumatic coronary illness, intrinsic coronary illness ,heart arrhythmia, , carditis, valvular coronary illness, fringe vein sickness, aortic aneurysms, and venous thrombosis. The pathology concerned to Cardiovascular System is known as Cardiovascular Pathology. The pathologists examine biological materials in the course of obtaining a diagnosis including blood, heart tissue and even DNA.  Pathologists involve in the day-to-day care of patients by monitoring the effects of treatment, in tracking the health of a new heart after heart transplantation.
Pulmonary Pathology mainly involves in the analysis of biopsy specimens of the lung and pleura. Pathologists specialize the diagnosis of, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum and its variance from other malignancies in these sites. Focusing on non-cancerous disease, both pulmonary gross review and histopathological analysis provide experience in both the common and unusual lung diseases. Pulmonary Pathology includes pulmonary infections, pulmonary hypertension and new onset/diagnosis of interstitial diseases.  A Pathological approach is used to accurately characterize the patient’s diagnosis, with close assistance with rheumatology, radiology and surgery. This approach is essential to assure a confirmation for accurate non-neoplastic lung disease pathological diagnosis. Pulmonary pathology is the concepts and insights of the pathological process that is underlying the disease condition.

 

Nephropathology may be a extremely specialized division of surgical pathology that handles the management, identification and prognostication of urinary organ diseases.Nephropathological identification is recently nearly always created on needle biopsies of transdermal, a tissue sample usually hated by the pathologists majorly, however one that has enriched the study of the natural course and also the evolution of the nephrological diseases. The department processes the urinary organ biopsies (native and allograft) for light-weight research, technique and microscopy analysis by nephropathologist. Medical urinary organ diseases gift with varied clinical manifestations like syndrome, nephritic syndrome, acute urinary organ injury, isolated hematuria/proteinuria and graft pathology within the case of urinary organ transplant recipient. These diseases might have an effect on the capillary, the tubules and interstitium, the vessels, or a mixture of those urinary organ compartments.

The gastrointestinal (GI) pathology extends high caliber histopathological diagnosis on resections and endoscopic biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in digestion like pain in the stomach or blood in the stool, indicates a disease or infection in the GI (Gastrointestinal tract). A Pathologist in gastrointestinal pathology will inspect these samples for signs of disease, infection or of cancer. The clinicians provide the most appropriate care for patients with accurate and early pathology report for diseases due to inflammation, infection, trauma, neoplasia, congenital-inherited disorders and iatrogenic injury. The Pathology report includes major conditions such as Gastro esophageal reflux, Barrett’s esophagus, Helicobacter pylori gastritis, stomach cancer, colorectal polyps and cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma.

Neuropathology is the branch of pathology deals with diseases in central and peripheral nervous tissue (pathology of brain, spinal cord, muscle, and nerve tissue) in adults and children. The primary concern is the diagnosis of brain tumors, and neuropathologists are often able to give a preliminary diagnosis to the neurosurgeon while the patient is still on the operating table. Neuropathologists are also responsible for post-mortem brain analysis, for example to categorize forms of dementia, investigate possible genetic conditions, and assess trauma. Neuropathologists put major part of research in neurodegenerative diseases disorders (Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases), neuro-oncology (genetics of tumors and classification of primary brain tumors, glial tumors and peripheral nerve sheath lesions associated with inherited syndromes) and vascular diseases (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). Neuropathology diagnoses samples including biopsies for oncology, inflammatory and infectious diseases.

The urinary system  is that the organ arrangement of the fruitful organs and therefore the genitourinary system. Genitourinary pathology is that the sub-claim to fame of surgical pathology that manages the determination and portrayal of growth and non-neoplastic ailments of the tract, male venereal tract and testicles.Pathology has intensive experience in urinary organ diseases in addition as diseases of the prostate, adrenal, ureters, bladder, canal and male reproductive gland. Tissue designation by Genitourinary pathologists  with prime concentrate on  malignancies, as well as urinary organ cancer, prostatic adenocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and seminoma. Pathologists facilitate in characteristic the diseases, infections, and tumors that have an effect on the prostate and alternative organs of the urinary system like an expert.

Hepatobiliary Pathology is a type which elaborates on the damage or disease of the liver. There are more than a hundred different kinds of liver disease, most common and familiar symptoms include jaundice and weight loss.  A set of liver function tests (LFTs) are available to test the functioning of the liver by pathologists. These tests are used to detect the presence of enzymes in blood that are normally most abundant in liver tissue are metabolites or products, serum proteins, serum albumin, serum globulin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time. The two liver diseases that are principally reported by pathology are cirrhosis and viral hepatitis, the disease of biliary system that mostly reported is cholelithiasis. The interpretation of pathological report mostly includes diseases like Liver neoplasms, chronic hepatitis, fatty liver disease, and liver and bowel transplantation. 

 

<p justify;\"="" style="text-align: justify;">Thyroid Pathology falls into two categories of pathology: Neoplastic and Endocrine. Endocrine disease lead to dysregulated levels of thyroid hormones, termed hypothyroidism (insufficient hormone) or hyperthyroidism (excess hormone). Cancerous disease of the thyroid is rare but can range from adenomas which are harmless to carcinomas which are highly aggressive. The thyroid gland is an important little endocrine organ in the anterior neck. The cytopathology of the thyroid gland is dealt elaborately in the thyroid pathology.

Head and Neck Pathology is the area of surgical pathology that deals with disorders and conditions of the ear, nose and throat region and related areas of the head and neck. The Head and Neck Pathology also deals with mucosal and Mesenchymal lesions of the upper aero digestive tract (Para nasal sinuses, nasal cavity, oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypo pharynx, and larynx) and lesions of the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, eye and orbit.Patients seek treatment from otorhinolaryngologists after the report from pathologists for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, or base of the skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck. Head and neck pathology helps in the differentiation of cancerous lesions from noncancerous lesions, and in accurate diagnosis of various infections, inflammations and other pathological conditions affecting the head and neck region.

Breast Pathology can help in knowing the stage of a cancer and the grading of cancer that is a measurement of the extent of the tumor and its spread.Breast infections can be classified either with disorders of the integument, or disarranges of the regenerative framework. A greater part of breast sicknesses are noncancerous which can be confirmed with pathology report. A breast neoplasm might be favourable, as in fibro adenoma, or it might be harmful, in which case it is named breast carcinoma after pathological testing of biopsy. In either case it shows a lump in the breast which could be painful in few. Around 7% of breast bumps are fibro adenomas and 10% are breast malignancy, the rest being conditions of no disease.A tumor mass can be non-cancerous and can be due to something like swelling or inflammation.

The pathologist contributes to the treatment and diagnosis of both the mother and infant. Data from placental pathology can be critical in early neonatal care and in reproductive planning for the family, and it can provide risk assessment for neurologic outcome of the infant. Indications for pathologic examination include a systemic maternal disorders, poor pregnancy outcome (prematurity, perinatal death, asphyxia and intrauterine growth retardation), evidence of fetal or maternal infection and third-trimester bleeding. The individual cords should be examined by the pathologist to focus on common categories like placental injury, rare lesions of extreme severity and high recurrence risk, and findings of underlying fetal processes and how they each relate to different outcomes of adverse pregnancy. Placental pathology have clinical utility which provide findings relevant to the immediate care of the mother or baby, predictions of possible recurrence of any unpleasant events, diagnoses in knowing  adverse pregnancy outcomes and reports in medico legal investigation of long-term morbidity and perinatal mortality. Pathologic finding relevant to immediate care would be peripheral abscesses on the surface of the umbilical cord in a premature placenta.

Pediatrics Pathology is of pathologists who are specialized in the pathology of the fetus, neonate or child. A perinatal pathologist is concerned with normal fetal development, congenital abnormalities and problems during pregnancy, labor, and early neonatal life. Paediatric pathology is specific to age rather than specific to organ and helps in investigation of that organ which is specific to the fetus and the placenta. The disease spectrum in this age range is very divergent from the one in adults and the interaction of congenital malformation with growth of the child show unique pathology. Degenerative diseases are not usual in children but tumors are relatively common, despite the types of tumor are different from those in adults. Pediatrics Pathology involves a complex development ranging from embryos to teenagers, encompassing not on. Pediatrics Pathology has subdivisions of Perinatal Pathology dealing with post-mortem examinations and placenta pathology and Pediatrics Histopathology dealing with surgical pathology.

Gynaecologic pathology is the subspecialty of pathology managing the analysis and study of infection including the female genital tract. The term Gynecologic derived from Greek gyno-(gynaikos) signifying "lady" and the ology signifying "investigation of". Gynaecologic pathology renders diagnosis on surgical specimens removed from the female genital tract. Gynaecologic pathology deals with cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, papillomavirus infection and trophoblastic tumors. Gynecologic Pathology lays out timely and accurate consultation of therapeutic and diagnostic biopsies.

Diagnostic Pathology includes all the features of surgical pathology which includes diagnosis, therapy-related findings and prognosis-related diagnosis (tumor stages, hormone receptors, prognosis markers). Technological features of pathology including molecular biology techniques; communication aspects (telecommunication, virtual pathology and virtual microscopy) morphometric aspects (DNA analysis and syntactic structure analysis).Diagnostic Pathology spreads the latest advances in digital, molecular and virtual pathology with a special focus on developments in technology.

Molecular pathology is the study of blood samples and tissue on a molecular level. Molecular pathology has advanced tests such as sequencing performed on DNA or RNA from an individual’s blood or tissue helps in revealing the presence of genetic changes. The genetic changes can indicate which kind of cancer it is, helps in directing what type of therapy rational, and allows determining whether genetic predisposition is present to develop a disease or condition. Molecular and genomic pathologists will test the samples for the presence of certain molecular indicators that can affect prognosis of disease, diagnosis and treatment. Pathological report will help begin the best plan of care at a early stage. The purpose of molecular pathology is to evaluate the mechanisms of disease by identifying molecular and pathway alterations.
Plausible and effective diagnostic testing is needed to confirm or contradict the presence of cancer, to monitor the disease progression and to evaluate the management and effectiveness of treatment An accurate, thorough and early cancer diagnosis is the first step in developing a rational, specific and individualized cancer treatment plan this is done after performing complete array of diagnostic tests.Cancer is first and fore mostly always diagnosed by an expert pathologist who looks at cell samples or tissue samples microscopically. In some cases, tests done on the cell proteins, DNA, and RNA can help physicians to detect presence of cancer. Tests of cells and tissues for detection of cancer can help in diagnosis of other kinds of diseases, too. For instance, if pathologists are unsure of the diagnosis of lump as cancer, then small piece of it is taken and tested for cancer, for infections or other problems that can cause over growth of cells that looks like cancer. There is no exact or specific single pathological test that can accurately diagnose cancer. The complete evaluation of a patient requires a thorough history, complete body profile and physical examination along. Numerous pathological tests are needed to determine and confirm whether its cancer or if another condition (infection) is mimicking the symptoms of cancer.

Trends in Cancer provide current updates, opinions, and discussions on an exhilarating current cancer research. Every issue of Trends in Cancer will be on the list of latest trends, important developments, and new ideas both within and outside their specialist area. A vaccine for cancer will either helps in preventing the development of a cancer or treats existing cancer. Vaccines that help in treating existing cancer are known to be therapeutic cancer vaccines. A major barrier to converting cancer therapies into curing is drug resistance in a very short span. Cancer cells often develop resistance to even the most effective therapeutic plans. Immunology in Cancer is a branch of biology that is concerned with understanding the correlation between the immune system and progression, development of cancer; Cancer immunology utilizes the immune system as a treatment for cancer.